ABSTRACT. This paper deals with the specific characteristics of Human Resource Management (HRM) in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in the region of Western Saxony, Germany. Our research provides a descriptive and explorative analysis of HR processes in the regional Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), their specific challenges and the status of Lifelong Learning (LLL). Thus, new insights and knowledge intended to contribute to research regarding HRM for SMEs were generated. The research results were obtained during the Erasmus+ project SHARPEN during which a collaborative cross-regions survey was conducted in five European countries from 2016-2019. This paper presents a review of the current literature relevant for HRM in (regional) SMEs as well as a discussion of the research results and recommendations for SMEs. It was found that the SMEs situated in Western Germany possess reasonably developed HR structures and processes and that Lifelong Learning initiatives are applied. For the benefit of the economic development of the region, offering ways to intensify the exchange of ideas and best practices as well as adopting theoretical constructs could allow the SMEs to gain new incentives for future projects.
ABSTRACT. Industry 4.0 is an expression that more frequently than others like industry of the future, digital industry, advanced manufacturing and so forth, is used to indicate a series of rapid technological transformations in the design, production and distribution of systems and products. The term, initially referred only to the manufacturing sector, has been progressively extended to the digital revolution which is involving all domains and that is entailing a rapid change of job requirements and skills. As a consequence, new professions are arising but existing jobs are also going through a modification in the skill sets required to perform them. The demands on employees will increase because processes become more complex, interconnected and digital. Currently and in the future, lifelong learning, the ability to think interdisciplinary as well as the development of IT competences will be basic requirements of employees in order to ensure the employability of working people, not only in technology-oriented careers (Richert, Behrens, Jeschke, 2016). Moreover, disruptive changes to business models are producing and will have a profound impact on the employment landscape over the coming years. In such a rapidly evolving employment scenario, the ability to anticipate and prepare for future skills requirements, job content and the aggregate effect on employment is increasingly critical for businesses, governments and individuals in order to fully seize the opportunities presented by these trends (World Economic Forum, The Future of Jobs, 2016). Education has to adapt to the changed conditions and should probably re-think the current model of pedagogy aligning it with the potential of digitization. The use of new didactic methods and the exploitation of multimedia and technological solutions such as virtual laboratories, video-based learning, augmented reality
Inter-organisational collaboration is forced and based on knowledge transfer. Educational systems are fields of application, research subjects as well as training provision domains for knowledge transfer in inter-organisational context.
The critical issues and challenges for education systems in the globalisation age will be analysed. The theoretical background for the improvement of the micro- and macro-education systems based on the theory of the competence transfer by networks will be explained and applied for the diversification of education systems. It is related to the particular relevance of individualisation and diversification as strategic success factor. The application of diversification is essential for improving the access to the educational markets. The future effects of synergy and prognostic development based on diversification in networks of higher education will be derived from special case studies realised by educational organisations and networks such as GUIDE.
The University of Zwickau is a medium-sized university, with a significant regional orientation. Because of globalization of knowledge transfer, it will be forced to become a part of national and international networks of training and education. The Institute of New Kinds of Education developed different models for opening the university to global co-operation and competition. Especially the Faculty of Management and Business Sciences will strive for the realization of a MEM-Multichannel Educational Model, in order to be prepared for the challenges of next decade. The analyses of the existing activities and opportunities are the precondition for the development of special models. Especially the adaptation of course offers to the requirements of the markets, in accordance with the future potentialities of the faculty, is necessary. Multichannel educational models have to be developed. The opportunities of the multi-level modelling strategy will be explained both, in the first approach, as an abstract modelling theory, and, in the second approach, as a case study, by the Institute of New Kinds of Education, in the Faculty of Management and Business Sciences, at the University of Applied Sciences, Zwickau, Germany.
Received: October 15th, 2007 – Revised: October 30th 2007
E-learning is characterised by the latest forms of technology and methodology. The future development of e-learning will find its expression in the transfer to the knowledge based e-learning. Especially technology and methodology will influence the further process by many innovations balanced with the improvement of the organisation and social life. The future development will be focused on networking, in order to be able to control efficient solutions of very complex problems. The future networks for distance education will be driven by the latest methodologies and technologies and based on knowledge transfer for e-learning in the framework of the systemic approach.