Creatività e Neuroscienze – La neuroplasticità dei processi creativi

ABSTRACT. The concept of creativity is hard to define. Creativity is the human capability to solve new problems by using unusual solutions, creating innovative techniques, and producing or appreciating art and beauty. Divergent thinking is the basis of creative thoughts and recent studies showed that the right hemisphere has a key role in this peculiar capability. In spite of this, creativity encloses several processes in addition to divergent thinking. The neuronal mechanisms involved in these capabilities are complex and difficult to evaluate but the modern functional neuroimaging methods are shedding light on these questions, demonstrating that both horizontal and vertical cerebral networks are recruited. In fact, creative functions are based on the synchronization of neuronal activity belonging to specialized and widely distributed networks. However, these networks are not immutable but changing in response to the environmental requirements during the lifespan. The ability of the brain to change its structure and function is neuroplasticity. The exposure to complex environmental stimulation influences neuroplasticity, inducing wide structural and functional changes in the brain. Consequently, complex brain networks could mediate complex cognitive functions, allowing the subject to increase creative processes, to adapt or to cope with highly conflicting and demanding environmental situations.

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